As Marc Levinson explains in ch. 6 of The Box, organized labor in New York was not initially prepared to face the challenge of containerization. The International Longshoremen’s Association (ILA) on the East Coast and the International Longshoremen’s and Warehousemen’s Union (ILWU) on the West Coast were often at odds and pursued different policies to guard against job losses due automation, so there was not a united national labor effort. In the East, the ILA was organized with strong locals that were often plagued by corruption. Budd Schulberg, the screenwriter of On the Waterfront, wrote several articles that describe the near civil war among New York dockworkers. The Brooklyn ILA Local 1814 in the Red Hook was perhaps the most notorious of all. I wonder if the unions had been more united would they have been better able to preserve the working waterfront? Or were they hanging on to an obsolete economic model? It is easy in retrospect to blame labor for not having a more forward looking vision of the working waterfront rather than play defense preserving the dwindling number of longshoremen jobs. I also wonder if there are lesson for other industries that are facing rising labor costs and technological obsolescence that can be learned from the deindustrialization of the Brooklyn waterfront.